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The exact quantification of the nutritional and antioxidant properties of the feed is important for the normal health of dairy cows and high milk production. Starting from the global interest in protecting against oxidative stress both in humans and in milk cows, this study examines the influence of oxidative substances in feed (hay from alfa alfa, concentrates for milk cows and wheat straw) and their influence in milk. Investigations of the chemical composition, minerals, vitamins A, E and C and antioxidant activity in feed and milk were performed.
Livestock feed was tested in three farms, from Kumanovo, Tetovo and Gostivar. Based on the performed tests of the chemical composition of the feed, it was concluded that the total used feed used for feeding the milk cows from Tetovo is characterized by the lowest composition. The average content of nutrients in the Gostivar farm (protein, raw fiber, BEM and mineral substances) is the highest. Thus, the content of protein in the lucerne hay from Gostivar is 13.93%, in the farm from Tetovo it is 10.73% and the farm in Kumanovo has the smallest content of 7.8%. In concentrated for dairy cows, the highest value for the chemical composition is found in the milk cows concentrate from Tetovo where the protein content of the milk cows concentrate (KMК 1) is 14.86%, and in the concentrate (KMК 2) the proteins are represented with 14.60%, followed by the KMK 1 concentrate from Kumanovo where the protein content is 14.26% and in KMK 2 it is 14.62%, the last place is KMK 1 from Gostivar where the protein content is the smallest 14.06%.
Also, the best chemical composition of milk is in the farm from Gostivar where the density is 1.02856 g / cm3, followed by the farm from Tetovo where the milk has a density of 1.02849 g / cm3 and in third place is the milk from the farm from Kumanovo with a density of 1.02805 g / cm3. The highest content of total dry matter without minerals has the milk from the Tetovo farm where 11.19% are represented, followed by the Kumanovo farm with 10.88% of dry matter and in the last place is the farm from Gostivar where the content of dry matter is 10.63%.
The chemical elements in the feed were examined using the ICP-AES (Varian, 715-ES), using the CETAC ultrasound nebulizer (ICP / U-5000AT +). The average content of the total mineral substances in the daily meal in the Milk cows is the highest in the Tetovo farm and it is 2540.07mg / kg, and in the milk it is the highest from the farm Kumanovo and it is 263.85 mg / L.
Vitamins A and E were examined only in feed concentrates for milk cows and in milk by extraction method with HPLC - Perkin Elmer, pump: series 200 LC, auto-semester; ISS-200, LC-135 / LC -235 C DA detector. The highest values for vitamin A were found in farm concentrates in Kumanovo (25,146 IE / kg), and for vitamin E in concentrates from a farm in Tetovo (26,234 IE / kg). Vitamins A and E are commonly present in milk from the farm in Gostivar with 38.25 μg / 100g and 1.09 μg / 100g compared to pasteurized milk, where their content is 18.48 μg / 100g and 0.12 μg / 100g. Vitamin C and antioxidant activity are examined in fodder and milk extracts and using a spectrophotometric method (Spectroquant Pharo 300 - Merck). The highest concentration of vitamin C is found in the alfaalfa hay on a farm in Tetovo (40.2 μg / ml), while in milk it is most commonly present in the Kumanovo farm of 2.8 μg / ml.
Two methods were used for antioxidant activity: phospholomybdate with reduction of molybdenum Mo (VI) in the Mo (V) and method of removing the activity of hydrogen peroxide H2O2. The highest value with the phospholimbdate method is obtained for feed, that is, alfalfa hay in the farm from Kumanovo (18.0 μg / ml) and in pasteurized milk with 3.5% milk fat wich a value of 4.85 μg / ml. With the method of removal of H2O2, a high value is obtained for a concentrate from Kumanovo KMK 1 with 54.3 μg / ml and in pasterurized milk with a value of 57.6 μg / ml.
The total value of the antioxidant activity, which was examined with the two methods of feeding used in the farms from Kumanovo, Tetovo and Gostivar, has the highest antioxidant value in the feed from the farm in Kumanovo with a value of 39.70 μg / ml and 157.8 μg / ml according to the methods, and the highest content of vitamin C in the total food from the farm of Kumanovo is confirmed with 91,0 μg / ml.
From the above it can be concluded that regardless of the farms that test the samples of the feed, higher nutritional values and higher antioxidant activity in the samples of alfalfa hey are obtained compared to the tests in raw milk which are much lower and even much lower than pasteurized milk

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Agricultural Sciences > Other agricultural sciences
Divisions: Doctoral Dissertations
Depositing User: M-r Bojan Mihajlovski
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2023 08:25
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2023 08:25
URI: https://eprints.uklo.edu.mk/id/eprint/9224

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