Susak, Ivona and Kleckaroska, Kostadina (2019) THE ROUTINE ACTIVITIES APPROACH ON CO-OFFENDING. Faculty of Law - Kicevo, “St. Kliment Ohridski” University - Bitola Center for Scientific Research at the Faculty of Law - Kicevo, Bitola, Macedonia. ISBN 978-608-4670-04-9

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Scholars over the years have examined a number of risk factors associated with delinquent behaviours. Traditional criminological theories emphasize offender motivation, assuming that the willingness to engage in crime is sufficient for crime to occur. Opportunity theories—including routine activities theory focus on how variations in criminal opportunity affect the occurrence of crime events. Cohen and Felson, explaining the routine activity theory, noted that there are three necessary elements for a crime event to occur: a motivated offender, a suitable target, and the lack of a capable guardian. They theorized that these elements must converge in time and space for crime to be possible. The literature shows that crime is substantially a matter of co-offending. In adolescent ages, about half of crime incidents occur in groups, usually of two or three offenders. Allowing for multiple counting when multiple offenders are present, approximately two-thirds of youth crime participations are in groups. This number is subject to measurement discussion, but the point is that we cannot look at crime only as a feature of individuals. Moreover, many solo offenders are involved with others just before or after their offense. This does not deny individual decision making or individual variations, but puts individuality into a larger context. Co-offending poses a significant number of practical requirements. A group must assemble for such offenses to occur, and such assemblage is not automatic. Nor is an assembled group necessarily located in a convenient setting for carrying out crime. Indeed, co-offending cannot occur without situational features; thus, it depends on time and space, as well as circumstances and routines. Drawing on the routine activities approach on co-offending, we are going to explain and emphasize the importance of these convergence settings, which strongly facilitate co-offenders to find each other and strongly enhance offending rates.
Key words: co-offending, theories, routine activity theory, situational convergence settings.

Item Type: Book
Subjects: Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Social Sciences > Law
Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Social Sciences > Other social sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Law
Depositing User: Mr Mladen Kradzoski
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2019 10:03
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2019 10:04

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