Examination of quality and hygienic correctness of the by-obtained in manufacturing vegetables and fruits

Pavlova, Valentina and Cilev, G. and Pacinovski, N. and Ristanović, B. and Petreski, A. (2014) Examination of quality and hygienic correctness of the by-obtained in manufacturing vegetables and fruits. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design. pp. 100-106. ISSN 1857-8489

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The subject of this work is of special interest for the
Republic of Macedonia because the by-products obtained from agro industry range from 5 to10% for
tomatoes, 25 to 30% for peppers and 20 to 25% for
grapes. To examine the by-products quality and hygienic correctness were taken the food samples who
origin from different regions of Macedonia.
In the food samples basic chemical composition was
established by standard methods. The calcium content was established by spectrophotometric method
(ISO 6490/2:1983), and the total amount of phosphorus by colorimetric method. On the basis of the results
obtained on the nutrients content, applying suitable
formula, the metabolic energy was counted (Alderman
[4] and Grbesha [15]). To establish the mycotoxins content in samples of by-products the thin layer chromatography method was performed, and the standard
multimycotoxicologyc method according to Balzer et
al. [8]. The heavy metals content (Pb, Hg, As, Cd) was
established by flaming atomic absorption spectrophotometry on the apparatus Perkin-Elmer 3300. The
content particular of amino-acids in proteins was established by chromatographic method on automatic
aminoanalizer according AOAC. Food samples for microbiological examination were inoculated in tiogluconant mix and physiologic solution from which further
series dilution was made. Enumeration and identification of present bacteria and fungae was performed by
standard microbiological methods.
The chemical analysis of the by-products obtained in
manufacturing grapes from vine production, peppers
from ajvar production and tomatoes from ketchup
production, indicates that they contain great amounts
of proteins (grapes - 12.66%, peppers - 18.77%, tomatoes - 21.15%), fats (grapes - 10.60%, peppers - 13.20%,
tomatoes - 8.18%) and cellulose (grapes - 39.16%, peppers - 39.31%, tomatoes - 37.78%) where the proteins
have an unfavourable amino-acid composition. Results
from microbiological analyses (number and presence
of: Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., E. coli, Salmonella
spp., Clostridium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp.,
Fusarium spp.), heavy metals examinations (As, Pb, Hg,
Cd) and mycotoxins content (aflatoxin B1, ohratoxin A,
zearalenone, T-2 toxin) showed that the by-products
obtained in the manufacturing vegetable and fruits
are hygienically correct and safe food.
Key words: By-products obtained in manufacturing tomatoes, Peppers and grapes, Quality, Hygienic correctness, Animal nutrition.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Natural sciences > Chemical sciences
Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Agricultural Sciences > Other agricultural sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Technology and Technical Sciences
Depositing User: Mr Jordan Martinovski
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2019 16:44
Last Modified: 07 Aug 2019 09:27
URI: https://eprints.uklo.edu.mk/id/eprint/1664

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