AMINO ACID ASPARAGINE INTAKE THROUGH MILK ENRICHED WITH SUPPLEMENTS

Stojanovska, Suzana and Tomovska, Julijana and Krstanovski, Aleksandar and Tasevska, Jasmina and Menkovska, Mirjana (2018) AMINO ACID ASPARAGINE INTAKE THROUGH MILK ENRICHED WITH SUPPLEMENTS. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences., 7 (4). pp. 392-394. ISSN 1338-5178

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION Milk as a food product possesses high nutritional value, especially due to the balance between organic substances which it is composed of and which are divided into building blocks, i.e. proteins and energy components or carbohydrates and fats (Guetouache et al. 2014). Within its structure it integrates two protein types: casein (80%) and whey (20%). Their ability to support main protein roles in the body is based on the fact that both contain sufficient amounts of all essential amino acids, which, according to science-based rating, classifies them as high-quality proteins. (Bos et al. 2000; Philips et al. 2009). Drinking one glass of milk (200 ml) 6.8 g of daily protein needs are met. In this respect modern-day dairy industry went one step forward and brought to the market an entire range of dairy beverages, enriched with different types of flavours and additives, which when consumed instead of classical meal or as dietary supplements provide us with even more of healthy nutrients. Successfully satisfying the metabolic demand requires from protein adequate amounts of nutritionally essential (indispensable) and digestible amino acids and amino acids that under particular conditions can become essential. Another prerequisite for this is presence of sufficient total amino acid nitrogen, which may be provided from the essential amino acids, dispensable amino acids and from other non-essential nitrogen sources as well (WHO, 2007). L-Asparagine, the amide of the dicarboxylic amino acid aspartic acid, is a dispensable amino acid that is either a subject of deamination during food processing or undergoes a mucosal cells aspartate conversion process. Daily human intakes of L-asparagine from dietary protein are about 7.4 g/100 g of dietary protein. (DRI, 2005). Many authors researched asparagine effects on human health. Some of them reported that supplementing a low intensity exercise with branched chain amino acids, like aspartate and asparagine, resulted in enhanced physical performance. According to these authors, “the amino acids interfered with the mechanisms responsible for the onset of fatigue, specifically with muscular and hepatic glycogen depletion and the synthesis of 5-hidroxytryptamine in low intensity physical activities” (Marquezi et al. 2003). Other authors speculate that asparagine supplementation in glutamine-deprived cells is also able to suppress cell death, which emphasizes its importance and role in overcoming and cellular adaptation to metabolic stresses, such as glutamine depletion (Hettmer et al. 2015). Considering that some of milk beverages contain various types of additives like coffee or chicory as healthier option, the aim of this research is to examine if milk beverages could serve as additional source of asparagine, which could support the body needs for dispensable amino acids. Coffee and chicory are both old plant species, known and used since a long time ago. (Anthony et al. 2010; Quanzhen and Jian, 2011). Coffee represents the primary source of wealth in many tropical countries and chicory, known and used already in the ancient Egypt, is lately being increasingly used as a substitution for coffee. This is mainly due to the fact that it does not contain caffeine, does not cause addiction and effects the human organism almost in the same way as coffee does. Asparagine and metabolic processes such as asparagine synthetase, which occur in the human body, as well as the effect they have on human health, are still the subject of research of many scientists (Hinchman et al. 1992; Matsui et al. 1992; Tessmann et al. 1999; Toma et al. 2011). MATERIAL AND METHODS Materials and apparatus Different milk types, with grounded coffee and roasted chicory acting as additives added under laboratory conditions, were used in order to conduct this research. All these ingredients were purchased at the retail stores. Prior to comparing final results, the analysis of blank samples was also carried out. All chemicals used for this examination had analytical reagent grade and spectral analysis were conducted on Spectroquant Pharo 300, UV/VIS spectrophotometer with wavelength range 190 – 1100 nm, using 1-cm glass cell. Instrument used to carry out sample purification after fat and protein extraction was Hettich 320R centrifuge and pH measurements for acidity adjustment were performed on Schott lab860. Method For the purpose of asparagine content determination, the choice fell on the method based upon redox reaction of asparagine with potassium permanganate, KMnO4. This is mainly due to its property to serve as an oxidizing agent for the oxidation of carbon-carbon double bonds. With exception of few modifications, sample preparation complied with the method described by Fahre and Ibrahim (2014). Milk dilution using dH2O in 1:10 ratio was followed by heating to 37º С, after which it was transferred to centrifuge tubes, 10 ml each. After separating the tubes into two groups of five tubes, 0.05g of grounded coffee and chicory into four tubes of both groups were added, followed by thorough mixing of the sample. Fat extraction was carried out at room temperature, centrifuging the samples at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes. To Considering that some of milk beverages contain various types of additives like coffee or chicory as healthier option, the aim of this research is to examine if milk beverages could serve as additional source of asparagine, which could support the body to meet needs for dispensable amino acids. For the purpose of asparagine content determination, the choice fell on the method based upon redox reaction of asparagine with potassium permanganate, KMnO4. The values show that the concentration of asparagine in the milk samples with chicory as an additive is higher (0.98 – 1.07 mg/l), in comparison with milk samples without additives where lower asparagine concentrations (0.26 - 0.40 mg/l) can be observed. Taking into account the above presented results it can be concluded that in addition to the specified amount of amino acids the consumer receives through milk, certain amounts of dispensable amino acids can be entered through supplements, as it is the case with asparagine from coffee or chicory. Keywords: additives, asparagine, chicory, coffee, milk

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Engineering and Technology > Chemical engineering
Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Engineering and Technology > Industrial biotechnology
Divisions: Faculty of Biotechnical Sciences
Depositing User: Prof. d-r Dzulijana Tomovska
Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2020 12:03
Last Modified: 15 Apr 2020 12:08
URI: http://eprints.uklo.edu.mk/id/eprint/4989

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