Ahmad, Paiman and Bosede, Ngozi Adeleye and Tilovska -Kechedji, Elena (2023) THE EU AS A GLOBAL ACTOR IN SUSTAINABILITY POLICY: ANALYZING THE EU’S LIMITED BUT POTENTIAL INFLUENCE IN IRAQ AND SYRIA. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 9 (1). pp. 289-302. ISSN eISSN 1857-9760

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Abstract: The role of the EUin sustainable development has been generally seen as influential so far. The EU has proven its commitment topromoting sustainability abroad,and the EUhas embarked on a transition to a low-carbon society at home. The Middle East lags behind all regions regardingsustainability due to ravagingeconomic, security, and social challenges,particularly in Iraqand Syria. As the economic nature of the petro-states,the petroleum price influences the GDP and economic growth not only for Iraq and Syria but the majority of resource-based economies. This creates fragile economies that are less resistantto international financial crises.Moreover, petro-states have few economic characteristics,including; high capital intensity, centralization and control of revenues,and low demand for labor. At the same time,oil has special effects on domestic conditions like authoritarianism and the temptation for civil war. This studyfocuses on the role of the EU in sustainability policytowards Iraq and Syria. This studyhighlightshow the European Green Deal (EGD) influences the path to sustainability in the Middle East, specifically in Iraq and Syria. In line withthis, the analytical framework discusses the logic of social actions (consequentialism and appropriateness),which are at play in EU-Middle East relations. Thus, it contributes to the role of the EU as a leading actor in global sustainability governance, focusing on a region that has been largely neglected.Keywords:European Green Deal; European Union; Iraq; Syria; Climate ChangeINTRODUCTIONMitigating the negative effects of climate change requires sustained innovative political leadership by a wide range of actors at different levels of governance. Climate change is a threat andan opportunity for innovative technologies to mitigate climate change (Wurzel and Connelly 2011). Making the European energy transition an opportunity for all might not be impossible, as European action influences conditions in petro-states. In general, petro-states generate income from oil and gas because these commodities dominate their economies;thus, the “petro-states are vulnerable to severe boom-and-bust cycles”(Campbell 2012).Most importantly, the European Green Deal (EGD), introduced by the European Commission in 2019, aims to decarbonize Europe. Climate policies have regressive effects on resource-based economies such as Middle Eastern oil producers. The speed of the energy transition is far slowerto mitigate climate change, yet very fast for the fossil-fuel industry to adapt (Hafner and Tagliapietra 2020).

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Scientific Fields (Frascati) > Social Sciences > Political science
Divisions: Faculty of Law
Depositing User: Mrs Elena Tilovska-Kechedji
Date Deposited: 27 Nov 2023 09:16
Last Modified: 27 Nov 2023 09:16

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